NASA Probe Gets Close Views of Large Saturn Hurricane

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has provided scientists the first close-up, visible-light views of a behemoth hurricane swirling around Saturn’s north pole.

In high-resolution pictures and video, scientists see the hurricane’s eye is about 1,250 miles (2,000 kilometers) wide, 20 times larger than the average hurricane eye on Earth. Thin, bright clouds at the outer edge of the hurricane are traveling 330 mph(150 meters per second). The hurricane swirls inside a large, mysterious, six-sided weather pattern known as the hexagon.

"We did a double take when we saw this vortex because it looks so much like a hurricane on Earth," said Andrew Ingersoll, a Cassini imaging team member at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "But there it is at Saturn, on a much larger scale, and it is somehow getting by on the small amounts of water vapor in Saturn’s hydrogen atmosphere."

Scientists will be studying the hurricane to gain insight into hurricanes on Earth, which feed off warm ocean water. Although there is no body of water close to these clouds high in Saturn’s atmosphere, learning how these Saturnian storms use water vapor could tell scientists more about how terrestrial hurricanes are generated and sustained.

Both a terrestrial hurricane and Saturn’s north polar vortex have a central eye with no clouds or very low clouds. Other similar features include high clouds forming an eye wall, other high clouds spiraling around the eye, and a counter-clockwise spin in the northern hemisphere.

A major difference between the hurricanes is that the one on Saturn is much bigger than its counterparts on Earth and spins surprisingly fast. At Saturn, the wind in the eye wall blows more than four times faster than hurricane-force winds on Earth. Unlike terrestrial hurricanes, which tend to move, the Saturnian hurricane is locked onto the planet’s north pole. On Earth, hurricanes tend to drift northward because of the forces acting on the fast swirls of wind as the planet rotates. The one on Saturn does not drift and is already as far north as it can be.

"The polar hurricane has nowhere else to go, and that’s likely why it’s stuck at the pole," said Kunio Sayanagi, a Cassini imaging team associate at Hampton University in Hampton, Va.

Scientists believe the massive storm has been churning for years. When Cassini arrived in the Saturn system in 2004, Saturn’s north pole was dark because the planet was in the middle of its north polar winter. During that time, the Cassini spacecraft’s composite infrared spectrometer and visual and infrared mapping spectrometer detected a great vortex, but a visible-light view had to wait for the passing of the equinox in August 2009. Only then did sunlight begin flooding Saturn’s northern hemisphere. The view required a change in the angle of Cassini’s orbits around Saturn so the spacecraft could see the poles.

"Such a stunning and mesmerizing view of the hurricane-like storm at the north pole is only possible because Cassini is on a sportier course, with orbits tilted to loop the spacecraft above and below Saturn’s equatorial plane," said Scott Edgington, Cassini deputy project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "You cannot see the polar regions very well from an equatorial orbit. Observing the planet from different vantage points reveals more about the cloud layers that cover the entirety of the planet."

Cassini changes its orbital inclination for such an observing campaign only once every few years. Because the spacecraft uses flybys of Saturn’s moon Titan to change the angle of its orbit, the inclined trajectories require attentive oversight from navigators. The path requires careful planning years in advance and sticking very precisely to the planned itinerary to ensure enough propellant is available for the spacecraft to reach future planned orbits and encounters.

Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI


Posted 11 months ago with 18,669 notes
Tagged:NASAAstronomySaturnplanetsciencespaceCassini missionCassininorthern hemispherestorm

  1. megukat reblogged this from gaaraofsburbia
  2. titianexous1117 reblogged this from galaxyclusters
  3. sautetherich reblogged this from astrotastic
  4. koalateashit reblogged this from dasfag
  5. she-is-a-saint reblogged this from platosportfolio
  6. platosportfolio reblogged this from dasfag
  7. dasfag reblogged this from inthedaysofmy-youth
  8. inthedaysofmy-youth reblogged this from spaceplasma
  9. the-freckled-runner reblogged this from halesfire
  10. junglescope reblogged this from spaceplasma
  11. alhusaintoon reblogged this from spaceplasma
  12. gunpowderaesthetics reblogged this from mollierosie
  13. trystanes reblogged this from cataclisme
  14. cataclisme reblogged this from tonofstupidness
  15. nanndilla7 reblogged this from spaceplasma
  16. stacemyster reblogged this from flightlessangelsof221b
  17. alabetaboo reblogged this from pizzaswitheveryoneonit
  18. bentleyshorty reblogged this from improvised-humor
  19. avenuequed reblogged this from pizzaswitheveryoneonit
  20. impalackless reblogged this from flightlessangelsof221b
  21. improvised-humor reblogged this from flightlessangelsof221b
  22. taralovescolors reblogged this from invisiblespork and added:
    Space is scary.
  23. pizzaswitheveryoneonit reblogged this from flightlessangelsof221b
  24. flightlessangelsof221b reblogged this from invisiblespork
  25. invisiblespork reblogged this from hollyandvice
  26. grevinden reblogged this from cucumberbatchin-gone