NASA Probe Gets Close Views of Large Saturn Hurricane

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft has provided scientists the first close-up, visible-light views of a behemoth hurricane swirling around Saturn’s north pole.

In high-resolution pictures and video, scientists see the hurricane’s eye is about 1,250 miles (2,000 kilometers) wide, 20 times larger than the average hurricane eye on Earth. Thin, bright clouds at the outer edge of the hurricane are traveling 330 mph(150 meters per second). The hurricane swirls inside a large, mysterious, six-sided weather pattern known as the hexagon.

"We did a double take when we saw this vortex because it looks so much like a hurricane on Earth," said Andrew Ingersoll, a Cassini imaging team member at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. "But there it is at Saturn, on a much larger scale, and it is somehow getting by on the small amounts of water vapor in Saturn’s hydrogen atmosphere."

Scientists will be studying the hurricane to gain insight into hurricanes on Earth, which feed off warm ocean water. Although there is no body of water close to these clouds high in Saturn’s atmosphere, learning how these Saturnian storms use water vapor could tell scientists more about how terrestrial hurricanes are generated and sustained.

Both a terrestrial hurricane and Saturn’s north polar vortex have a central eye with no clouds or very low clouds. Other similar features include high clouds forming an eye wall, other high clouds spiraling around the eye, and a counter-clockwise spin in the northern hemisphere.

A major difference between the hurricanes is that the one on Saturn is much bigger than its counterparts on Earth and spins surprisingly fast. At Saturn, the wind in the eye wall blows more than four times faster than hurricane-force winds on Earth. Unlike terrestrial hurricanes, which tend to move, the Saturnian hurricane is locked onto the planet’s north pole. On Earth, hurricanes tend to drift northward because of the forces acting on the fast swirls of wind as the planet rotates. The one on Saturn does not drift and is already as far north as it can be.

"The polar hurricane has nowhere else to go, and that’s likely why it’s stuck at the pole," said Kunio Sayanagi, a Cassini imaging team associate at Hampton University in Hampton, Va.

Scientists believe the massive storm has been churning for years. When Cassini arrived in the Saturn system in 2004, Saturn’s north pole was dark because the planet was in the middle of its north polar winter. During that time, the Cassini spacecraft’s composite infrared spectrometer and visual and infrared mapping spectrometer detected a great vortex, but a visible-light view had to wait for the passing of the equinox in August 2009. Only then did sunlight begin flooding Saturn’s northern hemisphere. The view required a change in the angle of Cassini’s orbits around Saturn so the spacecraft could see the poles.

"Such a stunning and mesmerizing view of the hurricane-like storm at the north pole is only possible because Cassini is on a sportier course, with orbits tilted to loop the spacecraft above and below Saturn’s equatorial plane," said Scott Edgington, Cassini deputy project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "You cannot see the polar regions very well from an equatorial orbit. Observing the planet from different vantage points reveals more about the cloud layers that cover the entirety of the planet."

Cassini changes its orbital inclination for such an observing campaign only once every few years. Because the spacecraft uses flybys of Saturn’s moon Titan to change the angle of its orbit, the inclined trajectories require attentive oversight from navigators. The path requires careful planning years in advance and sticking very precisely to the planned itinerary to ensure enough propellant is available for the spacecraft to reach future planned orbits and encounters.

Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI

Posted 1 year ago with 18,685 notes
Tagged:NASAAstronomySaturnplanetsciencespaceCassini missionCassininorthern hemispherestorm

  1. commissionerren reblogged this from spaceplasma
  2. lauren-mallards-bell-bottoms reblogged this from spaceplasma
  3. 1asianinvasion reblogged this from spaceplasma
  4. metalbenderrhys reblogged this from kirkspocksmoved
  5. samuraimoose reblogged this from webseeker
  6. somebodys-in-my-head-again reblogged this from spaceplasma
  7. noncurricular reblogged this from ewhwy
  8. deepalikescake reblogged this from thickandsmooth
  9. ohlawdjb reblogged this from spaceplasma
  10. psychoticguru reblogged this from glittereater
  11. frozenwillow reblogged this from spaceplasma
  12. fragvag reblogged this from angieandallsarchive
  13. angieandallsarchive reblogged this from rachaelora
  14. bearparts reblogged this from earthtogreg
  15. madwriter223 reblogged this from c2ndy2c1d
  16. shatteringyourmind reblogged this from 1980s-something-space-guy
  17. lustbot reblogged this from 1980s-something-space-guy
  18. fateerror reblogged this from 1980s-something-space-guy
  19. 1980s-something-space-guy reblogged this from coasterfanman
  20. coasterfanman reblogged this from talesofamoroccangirl
  21. talesofamoroccangirl reblogged this from spaceplasma
  22. floatingconsciousness reblogged this from kid-dynomite
  23. kid-dynomite reblogged this from dansuier
  24. nobedtimesnorules reblogged this from spaceplasma
  25. take-m-e-out reblogged this from spaceplasma
  26. whoisbenjacoby reblogged this from spaceplasma
  27. saturnus-in-furs reblogged this from carlsagan
  28. megukat reblogged this from gaaraofsburbia
  29. titianexous1117 reblogged this from galaxyclusters
  30. sautetherich reblogged this from astrotastic
  31. koalateashit reblogged this from mossdoll
  32. fuckukaren reblogged this from regularly-hiking
  33. regularly-hiking reblogged this from mossdoll
  34. mossdoll reblogged this from inthedaysofmy-youth
  35. inthedaysofmy-youth reblogged this from spaceplasma